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Test (10 irregular verbs)

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List of Irregular Verbs with audio

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Cambridge First - Gerund and Infinitive

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Cambridge First - Modal Verbs

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Classification of Irregular Verbs

Regular and Irregular Verbs

Regular verbs are verbs which take a '-d' or '-ed' suffix in the past and past participle, like play, played, played and do not change in any other way. All other verbs are considered irregular verbs.

Strong and Weak Verbs

Weak verbs are all verbs, including the regular verbs, which take a '-d', '-ed' or '-t' suffix in the past and past participle. Most weak verbs are regular. They are considered irregular when
a) the regular '-d / -ed' ending is contracted to '-t', as in send, sent, sent (not 'sended') or
b) the vowel in the past and past participle is different from the vowel in the infinitive, as in sell, sold, sold or
c) both of these changes occur, as in bring, brought, brought.
Strong verbs do not take a '-d / -ed' suffix. Instead, the vowel in the past and past participle differs from the vowel in the infinitive, as in take, took, taken. The past participle often ends in -n or -en. These verbs have mostly survived from conjugation systems which no longer exist. All strong verbs are irregular.

Classification

Traditional classifications of irregular verbs tend to leave us with mixed groups of morphologically heterogeneous verbs which, in some cases, have long since lost the features that justified their inclusion in a particular group. Any practical classification will therefore be based primarily on morphological considerations which are, however, still determined in a general way by grammar and / or etymology. Six basic groups (three mostly weak, three mostly strong) may be identified.

Weak Classes

Class 1 (Weak verbs)

Class 1 - For the most part, weak verbs which undergo contraction and / or vowel shortening.

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
1.1 wetwet or wettedwet or wetted
1.1 hithithit
1.1 hurthurthurt
1.1 knitknit or knittedknit or knitted
1.1 letletlet
1.1 putputput
1.1 quitquit or quittedquit or quitted
1.1 ridrid or riddedrid, ridden or ridded
1.1 setsetset
1.1 shedshedshed
1.1 shitshit, shat or shittedshit, shat or shitted
1.1 shutshutshut
1.1 slitslitslit
1.1 splitsplitsplit
1.1 sweatsweat or sweatedsweat or sweated
1.1 thrustthrust or thrustedthrust or thrusted
1.1 upsetupset or upsettedupset or upsetted
1.1 wedwed or weddedwed or wedded
1.1 fitfitfit
1.1 bustbust or bustedbust or busted
1.1 burstburstburst
1.1 cutcutcut
1.1 costcostcost
1.1 bidbid or badebid or bidden
1.1 bidbidbid
1.1 betbet or bettedbet or betted
1.1 spreadspreadspread
1.1 castcastcast
1.2 understandunderstoodunderstood
1.2 standstoodstood
1.2 sitsatsat
1.2 spitspat or spitspat or spit
1.3 shiteshit, shat or shitedshit, shat or shited
1.3 lightlit or lightedlit or lighted
1.3 breedbredbred
1.3 shootshotshot
1.3 meetmetmet
1.3 readreadread
1.3 chidechid or chidedchid or chided
1.3 slideslidslid
1.3 speedsped or speededsped or speeded
1.3 leadledled
1.3 bleedbledbled
1.3 feedfedfed
1.3 holdheldheld
1.4 sleepsleptslept
1.4 bereavebereft or bereavedbereft or bereaved
1.4 sweepsweptswept
1.4 creepcreptcrept
1.4 shoeshod or shoedshod or shoed
1.4 dreamdreamt or dreameddreamt or dreamed
1.4 weepweptwept
1.4 hearheardheard
1.4 leanleant or leanedleant or leaned
1.4 leapleapt or leapedleapt or leaped
1.4 leaveleftleft
1.4 keepkeptkept
1.4 loselostlost
1.4 fleefledfled
1.4 meanmeantmeant
1.4 cleavecleavedcleaved
1.4 reavereft or rovereft or reaven
1.4 dealdealtdealt
1.4 feelfeltfelt
1.4 saysaidsaid
1.4 kneelknelt or kneeledknelt or kneeled
1.5 girdgirt or girdedgirt or girded
1.5 gildgilt or gildedgilt or gilded
1.5 geldgelt or geldedgelt or gelded
1.5 bendbentbent
1.5 sendsentsent
1.5 spendspentspent
1.5 lendlentlent
1.5 buildbuiltbuilt
1.5 rendrent or rendedrent or rended
1.5 blendblent or blendedblent or blended
1.6 havehadhad
1.6 makemademade
1.1 Regular verbs like cut, cut, cut, which keep the same form in infinitive, past and past participle (owing to contraction of the '-ed' ending).
1.2 Verbs like sit, sat, sat, which keep the same form except that the (short) vowel in past and past participle differs from the (short) vowel in infinitive.
1.3 Verbs like meet, met, met, which keep the same form except that the long vowel in infinitive is shortened in past and past participle.
1.4 Verbs like lose, lost, lost, where the long vowel in infinitive is shortened in past and past participle, and which add a contracted regular ending ('-t').
1.5 Verbs like send, sent, sent, which keep the same form except that the infinitive '-d' ending changes to '-t' in past and past participle.
1.6 Verbs like make, made, made, where the infinitive ending changes to '-d' in past and past participle.

Class 2 (Verbs with regular and irregular forms)

Class 2 - Regular verbs with (alternative) irregular forms.

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
2.1 blessblest or blessedblest or blessed
2.1 spoilspoilt or spoiledspoilt or spoiled
2.1 spillspilt or spilledspilt or spilled
2.1 spellspelt or spelledspelt or spelled
2.1 smellsmelt or smelledsmelt or smelled
2.1 penpent or pennedpent or penned
2.1 learnlearnt or learnedlearnt or learned
2.1 dwelldwelt or dwelleddwelt or dwelled
2.1 burnburnt or burnedburnt or burned
2.2 paypaidpaid
2.2 laylaidlaid
2.2 waylaywaylaidwaylaid
2.1 Verbs like burn, burnt or burned, burnt or burned, which can add either irregular '-t' or regular '-ed' endings in past and participle but otherwise keep the same form.
2.2 Verbs like pay, paid, paid, which are irregular only in spelling.

Class 3 (Weak verbs with change to long vowel)

Class 3 - For the most part, weak verbs which look like strong verbs (because of the change to a long vowel in past and past participle).

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
3.1 windwoundwound
3.1 grindgroundground
3.1 findfoundfound
3.1 bindboundbound
3.2 buyboughtbought
3.2 thinkthoughtthought
3.2 teachtaughttaught
3.2 seeksoughtsought
3.2 bringbroughtbrought
3.2 fightfoughtfought
3.2 catchcaughtcaught
3.2 beseechbesought or beseechedbesought or beseeched
3.3 sellsoldsold
3.3 telltoldtold
3.1 Verbs like find, found, found which keep the same form except that the short vowel in infinitive is lengthened in past and past participle.
3.2 Mostly weak verbs like think, thought, thought, where the short vowel in infinitive changes to ' -au' or ' -ou' and which take a ' -t' ending in past and past participle.
3.3 Verbs like tell, told, told, which have vowel change and a regular '-d ending' in past and past participle.

Strong Classes

Class 4 (Strong 'i - a - u' verbs)

Class 4 - For the most part, strong verbs following variants of the 'i - a - u' pattern.

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
4.1 becomebecamebecome
4.1 stinkstank or stunkstunk
4.1 sinksank or sunksunk
4.1 singsangsung
4.1 shrinkshrank or shrunkshrunk
4.1 runranrun
4.1 ringrangrung
4.1 springsprang or sprungsprung
4.1 beginbeganbegun
4.1 comecamecome
4.1 drinkdrankdrunk
4.1 swimswamswum
4.2 strikestruckstruck or stricken
4.2 swingswungswung
4.2 winwonwon
4.2 stingstungstung
4.2 stickstuckstuck
4.2 stringstrungstrung
4.2 spinspunspun
4.2 clingclungclung
4.2 digdugdug
4.2 flingflungflung
4.2 hanghunghung
4.2 shineshoneshone
4.2 slingslungslung
4.2 slinkslunk or slinkedslunk
4.2 sneaksnuck or sneakedsnuck or sneaked
4.2 wringwrungwrung
4.1 Verbs which follow the pattern of vowel modification seen in sing, sang, sung.
4.2 Verbs which follow the pattern of vowel modification seen in swing, swung, swung.

Class 5 (Strong verbs in -en)

Class 5 - For the most part, strong verbs which take the '-en' ending in the past participle.

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
5.1 writewrotewritten
5.1 hidehidhidden
5.1 forgetforgotforgotten
5.1 forbidforbadeforbidden or forbid
5.1 rideroderidden
5.1 smitesmotesmitten
5.1 treadtrodtrodden or trod
5.1 bidebode or bidedbidden, bode or bided
5.1 bitebitbitten or bit
5.1 getgotgot or gotten
5.1 stridestrodestridden
5.2 meltmeltedmolten or melted
5.2 proveprovedproven or proved
5.2 ladeladedladen or laded
5.2 shaveshavedshaven or shaved
5.2 swellswelledswollen or swelled
5.3 freezefrozefrozen
5.3 stealstolestolen
5.3 breakbrokebroken
5.3 strivestrove or strivedstriven or strived
5.3 bodebode or bodedboden or boded
5.3 taketooktaken
5.3 thrivethrove or thrivedthriven or thrived
5.3 choosechosechosen
5.3 wakewokewoken
5.3 weavewove or weftwoven or weft
5.3 wreakwroke or wreakedwroken or wreaked
5.3 beatbeatbeaten
5.3 speakspokespoken
5.3 cleaveclove or cleftcloven or cleft
5.3 divedove or diveddove or dived
5.3 givegavegiven
5.3 heavehove or heavedhove or heaved
5.3 forsakeforsookforsaken
5.3 forgiveforgaveforgiven
5.3 fallfellfallen
5.3 mistakemistookmistaken
5.3 eatateeaten
5.3 drivedrovedriven
5.3 riseroserisen
5.3 riverove or rivedriven or rived
5.3 shakeshookshaken
5.3 stavestove or stavedstove or staved
5.1 Verbs like bite, bit, bitten, which have infinitive ending in '-t' or 'd' and participle in '-dden' or -'tten'.
5.2 Weak verbs like melt, melted , melted or molten, which have an alternative irregular participle ending in '-en'.
5.3 Strong verbs like give, gave , given which (mostly) show vowel change and participle in '-en'.

Class 6 (Strong verbs in -n)

Class 6 - For the most part, strong verbs where the -en ending has contracted to -n.

ClassInfinitivePastParticiple
6.1 knowknewknown
6.1 growgrewgrown
6.1 slayslew or slayedslain or slayed
6.1 flyflewflown
6.1 drawdrewdrawn
6.1 crowcrew or crowedcrowed
6.1 blowblewblown
6.1 throwthrewthrown
6.2 sawsawedsawn or sawed
6.2 showshowedshown or showed
6.2 sowsowedsown or sowed
6.2 mowmowedmown or mowed
6.2 hewhewedhewn or hewed
6.2 strewstrewedstrewn or strewed
6.2 sewsewedsewn or sewed
6.3 swearsworesworn
6.3 teartoretorn
6.3 shearshore or shearedshorn or sheared
6.3 wearworeworn
6.3 bearboreborne
6.3 bearboreborn
6.4 seesawseen
6.4 lielaylain
6.4 gowentgone
6.4 dodiddone
6.4 bewas or werebeen
6.1 Verbs which follow the pattern of vowel modification of blow, blew, blown in past and past participle.
6.2 Verbs like sew, sewed, sewed or sewn, which have an alternative irregular participle ending in '-n'.
6.3 Verbs which follow the pattern of vowel modification of wear, wore, worn.
6.4 Other verbs like see, saw, seen with past participle ending in '-n'.

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